Oklahoma, www.OK.gov <{$map[0].NAME}>

Contact  |  A-Z Health Index  |  Events & Meetings

get adobe reader

For Release: October 6, 2008
Contact: Pamela Williams
Office of Communications
(405) 271-5601

Antibiotic Safety Focus of Oklahoma’s Get Smart Campaign

In an effort to discourage the inappropriate use of antibiotics, Gov. Brad Henry has proclaimed the week of Oct. 6, 2008, “Get Smart About Antibiotics Week” in Oklahoma.

Antibiotics are powerful and effective weapons against bacterial infections, and overuse has led to an increase in antibiotic resistance in many bacteria.  In addition, an adverse reaction to antibiotics can pose a problem as simple as a rash or as serious as anaphylaxis, an allergic reaction that can result in shock or even death.  A recent study by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that more than 140,000 emergency room visits occur each year due to bad reactions to antibiotics.

“Antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the United States. Annually, antibiotics are prescribed to an estimated 16 percent of patients during ambulatory care visits, and pharmaceutical manufacturers spend $1 billion promoting antibiotics," said CDC's Dr. Daniel Budnitz, who led the study.

More importantly, the study estimated that half of the approximately 100 million antibiotic prescriptions written for respiratory infections in the United States are not even necessary.  Viruses cause most respiratory infections, and antibiotics are worthless against viruses.

“Antibiotics kill bacteria, not viruses. Viruses cause colds, influenza and most sore throats, and antibiotics simply are not an appropriate course of treatment. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase drug-resistant bacteria which can then be harder to treat,” said Secretary of Health and Commissioner of Health Dr. Michael Crutcher.

To learn more about antibiotic resistance and adverse reactions, visit this Web site: http://ads.health.ok.gov and click on “Disease Information” then “Appropriate Antibiotic Use.”


Get Smart: Facts About Antibiotics

When Are Antibiotics Necessary?

Viruses and bacteria are the two types of germs that cause most infections.  Antibiotics can only cure those caused by bacteria.  Please do not pressure your healthcare provider to prescribe an antibiotic – he or she can best determine whether your illness is caused by a bacteria or a virus, and whether it can be treated with antibiotics.  Here are a few general guidelines:

  • Viruses cause most upper respiratory illnesses, and antibiotics will not cure them.
  • Colds and Influenza: All colds and influenza are caused by viruses. Antibiotics have no effect but you can use non-prescription comfort measures to feel better while the illness runs its course. Certain anti-viral drugs can be prescribed by your doctor to shorten the course of influenza if started within 48 hours of becoming sick.
  • Coughs or bronchitis: Most cases of bronchitis in otherwise healthy adults and children will resolve over time and do not require antibiotics.
  • Sore throat: Most are caused by viruses and do not need antibiotics. Strep throat is the major type of sore throat that should be treated with an antibiotic. A laboratory test that can usually be performed at your healthcare provider’s office is usually needed to determine whether a sore throat is caused by a virus or bacteria.
  • Ear infections: These may be caused by bacteria, but most often are caused by viruses and do not require antibiotics.
  • Runny nose or sinus infections: Most children with thick or green mucus do not have bacterial sinus infections. Contact your healthcare provider for severe or persistent cases that may require antibiotics.
  • Pneumonia or meningitis: These severe infections are often caused by bacteria and should be treated with antibiotics until a definite cause can be proven.
What To Do When You Have A Viral Illness:

First of all, stop the spread of viral infections through frequent hand washing and by avoiding close contact with others, especially when you are coughing.  It is important to cover your cough with a tissue and immediately dispose of it, then cleanse your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand gel. 

Children and adults with viral infections recover when the illness has run its course. Colds caused by viruses may last for two weeks or longer.   Measures that can help a person with a cold or flu feel better include:

  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Get lots of rest to allow your body a chance to recover.
  • Use a cool mist or saline nasal spray to relieve congestion.
  • Soothe your throat with ice chips, sore throat spray, or lozenges (for older children and adults).
  • Follow package directions regarding use of over the counter medications when treating symptoms such as cough, fever, headache, and sneezing or stuffy nose.

Important: Sometimes a viral infection can be followed by a bacterial infection because the body’s defenses have been weakened. But treating viral infections with antibiotics will not prevent subsequent bacterial infections and may cause infections with resistant bacteria. Keep your healthcare provider informed if your illness does not improve, lasts a long time or gets worse, so that further treatment can be given if needed.

Use antibiotics wisely when your healthcare provider does prescribe them.

  • Take antibiotics exactly as prescribed.
  • Don’t quit taking an antibiotic too early or save them for a different problem.
  • Don’t give your antibiotics to someone else.
  • Inappropriate antibiotic use can cause antibiotic resistance that becomes everyone’s problem.

Keep your illness to yourself!

Remember to cover your cough, use good hand hygiene frequently, and stay home if you are ill.  You can spread your illness if you ignore these common sense but very effective precautions.  Remember to clean frequently touched areas with a household disinfectant often when you’ve been ill.

Protect yourself from illness!

The single most important action that prevents you from catching a cold or flu is frequent hand hygiene using soap and water or alcohol-based hand gel.  Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth when you’ve been touching objects in the environment that could be contaminated with respiratory secretions. 


Creating a State of Health Logo