Bullying Frequently Asked Questions


 

 

Bullying has a negative effect on the social environment of schools, creates a climate of fear among students, inhibits the ability to learn, and leads to other antisocial behavior. Other detrimental effects of bullying include impact on school safety, student engagement, and the overall school environment. Oklahoma state law declares that any form, type, or level of bullying is prohibited, and that every incident of behavior that may constitute bullying should be taken seriously by school administrators, school staff (including teachers), students, and parents. Below is a list of frequently asked questions to help schools and parents understand and successfully prevent bullying behavior.

 

 

 

 

What is bullying?

What are the warning signs of bullying?

What can I do if I am being bullied?

How can I avoid being bullied?

What do I do if my child is bullied?

How do I report bullying incidents at my child’s school?

How do I file a complaint on a school district?

Are there laws on bullying and harassment?

Can bullying be a civil rights violation?

Are schools required to educate students on bullying prevention?

What is in an effective bullying prevention policy?

What can I do if I witness a bullying incident?

How do you investigate bullying incidents?

How should we conduct interviews of the students involved in the incident?

What are appropriate consequences of engaging in bullying behavior?

How can we raise awareness on bullying prevention in our school?

What are ineffective ways to prevent bullying?

How do we prevent bullying in our school?

What bullying curriculum can I implement in my school?

How do I prevent bullying on the school bus?

What can communities do about school bullying?

Are there any free resources available to prevent bullying?

Where can I get more information?

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What is bullying?

There is not a specific, widely-adopted definition of bullying. Although definitions of bullying vary, most agree that bullying involves:

  • Imbalance of Power. People who bully use their power to control or harm and the people being bullied may have a hard time defending themselves.
  • Intent to Cause Harm. Actions done by accident are not bullying; the person bullying has a goal to cause harm.
  • Repetition. Incidents of bullying happen to the same the person over and over by the same person or group.[i]

The following definitions are defined in the Oklahoma School Security Act to help recognize bullying behavior:

“Harassment, intimidation, and bullying means any gesture, written or verbal expression, electronic communication, or physical act that a reasonable person should know will harm another student, damage another student’s property, place another student in reasonable fear of harm to the student’s person or damage to the student’s property, or insult or demean any student or group of students in such a way as to disrupt or interfere with the school’s educational mission or the education of any student.”

“Threatening behavior means any pattern of behavior or isolated action, whether or not it is directed at another person, that a reasonable person would believe indicates potential for future harm to students, school personnel, or school property.”

Bullying has serious and lasting effects. Research has found bullying behavior causes increased mental health problems, increased thoughts of suicide, retaliation through extremely violent measures, decreased academic achievement, higher risk of abusing alcohol and other drugs, and truancy.

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What are the warning signs of bullying? 

There are many warning signs that could indicate that a student is involved in bullying, either by bullying others or by being bullied. However, these warning signs may indicate other issues or problems, as well.  Below is a list of common signs:

Being Bullied:

  • Reluctant to go to school or certain places.
  • Silent about what is happening at school.
  • Frequent lost or damaged possessions.
  • Academic problems.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Social isolation.
  • Quiet, depressed, irritable, or anxious.

Bullying Others:

  • Gets into physical or verbal fights with others.
  • Enjoys putting others down.
  • Has extra money or new belongings that cannot be explained.
  • Disrespects authority and disregards rules.
  • Has an attitude of superiority.
  • Quick to blame others.
  • Needs to have power or control over others.
  • Enjoys violence.

Click here for a reproducible resource on warning signs.

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What can I do if I am being bullied?

Bullying is wrong and it is not your fault. Everyone deserves to feel safe at school. Follow these steps if you are in a bullying situation:

  • Speak up against bullying. Be firm and clear when you speak. Say something like “stop it”.
  • Walk away. Act like you do not care, even if you really do.
  • Tell an adult you trust. Report it to your parent, teacher, counselor, or School Resource Officer.
  • Stick together. The buddy system works. Staying with a group or friend will allow someone else to help you speak up or run to get help.

Click here for a survey students can give to a trusted adult.

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How can I avoid being bullied?

Bullying can be scary. Know that you are not alone. Follow these steps to help you avoid being in a bullying situation:

  • Do not give bullies a chance. Take a different route to class or home from school.
  • Avoid unsupervised areas of the school.
  • Sit at the front of the bus.
  • Find a buddy and stick together.
  • Stand tall and be brave.

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What do I do if my child is bullied?

When your child is being bullied, it is hard to concentrate on anything else. All you want to do is make it stop.  Follow the steps below to be the best possible advocate for your child in a bullying situation:

  • Stay calm. If you get upset, your child may think you are upset with him instead of at the situation. A knee-jerk reaction to something your child has shared with you may close off the open line of communication.
  • Empathize with your child. It’s not their fault. No one deserves to be bullied. Tell them you are glad they had the courage to tell you.
  • Ask open-ended questions. This will get your child to open up more about bullying and the severity of the problem. Continue to ask open-ended questions in the future to know if it is a reoccurring issue.
  • Encourage your child to make new friends. Help them make new friends. Help get them involved in activities to make new friends.
  • Share your own experiences. Sharing your own experiences with a bully will help them understand that they are not alone.
  • Brainstorm ways to solve the problem nonviolently. Encouraging retaliation may get your child hurt or suspended.
  • Contact school officials to report any incidences. Document everything and stick to the facts. Nothing good can come from a heated argument. In fact, it may damage all open lines of communication with the district. Overreacting may have the opposite effect you intended to have and the school may not take your future complaints seriously.
  • Help be a part of the solution. Get involved in your child’s school. Volunteer to watch “hot spots” at school, shadow in the classroom, join the PTA, rally together for an Anti-Bullying event, and sit in on the Safe School Committee.
  • Commit to making bullying stop. Work with your child and the school to provide a safe learning environment.
  • Build resiliency in your child! This may not be the only time they come in contact with a bully. We need to do everything we can to help improve coping skills so that they can better handle these hardships in the future.

Teach your child how to report bullying incidents to adults in an effective way. Adults are less likely to discount a child’s report as “tattling” if the report includes what is being done to him that makes him fearful or uncomfortable, who is doing it, what he has done to try to resolve the problem or to get the bully to quit, if there were any witness to the incident, and a clear explanation of what he needs or wants from the adult to stop the bullying.

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How do I report bullying incidents to my child’s school?

Bullying incidents should be reported through the school’s chain of command or to the policy indicated personnel, if applicable. In most cases, incidents are appropriately addressed with the classroom teacher. If you feel that the classroom teacher is not properly handling the situation, it is recommended that you notify the school principal in writing of the incident and carbon copy (cc) the district superintendent. A letter should state the facts of the incident (free of opinions or emotional statements), your desire for the incident to be resolved, and request a follow-up letter regarding the schools action in the incident. Provide any documentation you may have of the incident, including witnesses, doctor’s notes, police reports, cyberbullying online printouts, and other information appropriate to the incident. A letter can serve multiple purposes. It will alert school administration of the bullying, your desire for interventions against bullying, can serve as a written record when referring to incident, and provide documentation if you need to escalate the incident up the school’s chain of command.

If the school principal has not resolved the situation, the next step would be to notify the school district’s superintendent. Follow the same recommendations as notifying the school principal. If you would rather have a meeting to discuss the incident, request the meeting in writing and send a follow-up letter summarizing the discussion after the meeting. This will serve as a written record and provide documentation if you need to escalate the incident.

The final step in the school’s chain of command would be the locally elected school board members. You must submit your written request to the school board president or policy indicated personnel to be placed on the school board meeting agenda. School board meetings are subject to the Open Meetings Act.

Click here for a sample letter.

Click here for a incident report form.

Click here for a witness report form.

Click here for the reproducible contact chart poster.

A quick chart of who to contact regarding bullying behavior at school[ii]:

Is someone at immediate risk of harm?

Contact local law enforcement.                                       (911 or School Resource Officer)

Is your child feeling suicidal?

Contact the suicide prevention lifeline. 800-273-TALK (8255) (www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org)

Is your child's teacher not keeping your child safe?

Contact your school principal.

Is your school principal not keeping your child safe?

Contact your local school administrator.

Is your school administrator not keeping your child safe?

Contact your local school board.

Is your child still unsafe without school help?

Contact the State Department of Education.

Is your child sick, stressed, or having other problems because of bullying?

Contact your school counselor or a mental health professional.

Is your child bullied because of their race, ethnicity, or disability without local help?

Contact the US Department of Education’s 
Office of Civil Rights. (www2.ed.gov/ocr)

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How do you file a complaint on a school district?

Upon receipt of your complaint, the State Department of Education (SDE) staff will receive all information and documentation to determine whether there is evidence of noncompliance with state law. The SDE does not have authority to investigate complaints of bullying or harassment. This information is submitted soley for purposes of assisting the monitoring compliance with state bullying statutes. All information below must be provided with the complaint form to be evaluated by SDE staff. This complain may be shared with District officials by SDE staff during the compliance review process. 

Required Documentation:

  • Incident notification to district
  • Correspondence regarding the incident to the teacher
  • Correspondence regarding the incident to the counselor
  • Correspondence regarding the incident to the principal
  • Correspondence regarding the incident to the superintendent
  • Letter requesting to appear before the district's board of education
  • Minutes from the district's board meeting
  • If applicable, physical evidence (notes, e-mails, web site, audio, video, police report)

Click here for the SDE complaint form.

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Are there laws on bullying and harassment?

There are two state laws that address and prohibit bullying, harassment, and intimidation.

State Laws:

  • School Bullying Prevention Act (2002)
  • Oklahoma School Security Act (2008)

The School Bullying Prevention Act, became effective November 1, 2002, requires the school board of each district to adopt a policy for the control and discipline of all children attending public school in that district by specifically prohibiting harassment, intimidation, and bullying by students at school and to address prevention of and education about such behavior. In developing this policy, the local Boards of Education shall make an effort to involve the teachers, parents, and students affected. Students, parents, and teachers shall be notified by the district’s Board of Education of its adoption of the policy.

The law further states that each public school site shall establish a Safe School Committee. The Committee is to be composed of at least six members, consisting of an equal number of teachers, parents of the children affected, and students. Safe school committees shall study and make recommendations regarding: Student harassment, intimidation, and bullying at school, professional development needs of faculty and staff to implement methods to decrease this behavior, methods to encourage involvement of community and students, and the development of individual relationships between students and staff and the use of problem-solving teams. The Safe School Committee shall review traditional prevention programs utilized by other states, state agencies, or school districts.       

The Oklahoma School Security Act, became effective November 1, 2008, amended the School Bullying Prevention Act. This Act required all districts to add “electronic communication” and “threatening behavior” to their bullying prevention policy. In addition to their policy, districts are to establish a procedure for the investigation of all reported incidents for the purpose of determining the severity of the incidents and their potential to result in future violence. Districts are also required to establish a procedure where a school may recommend that available community mental health care options are provided to the student and disclose information concerning students who have received mental health care.

The law further states that each public school site shall add an additional member to the Safe School Committee. This additional member shall be a school official who participates in the investigation of reports of harassment, intimidation, bullying, and threatening behavior. The State Board of Education shall promulgate rules for monitoring school districts for compliance and provide sanctions for noncompliance with the Act.

Click here for the School Bullying Prevention Act.

Click here for the Oklahoma School Security Act.

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Can bullying be a civil rights violation?

Schools that receive federal funding are required by federal law to address discrimination on a number of different personal characteristics. The statutes the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) enforces include:

  • Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin;
  • Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex;
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504); and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Title II). Section 504 and Title II prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability.

School districts may violate these civil rights statutes and the U.S. Department of Education’s implementing regulations when peer harassment based on race, color, national origin, sex, or disability is sufficiently serious that it creates a hostile environment and such harassment is encouraged, tolerated, not adequately addressed, or ignored by school employees.

While current laws enforced by OCR do not protect against harassment based on religion or sexual orientation, they do include protection against harassment of members of religious groups based on shared ethnic characteristics as well as gender-based and sexual harassment of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals.  [iii]

If you or your child is being bullied based on the different personal characteristics listed above without help from the district, contact the United States Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights to file a complaint. 

Click here to learn more about OCR complaint process.

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Are schools required to educate students on bullying prevention?

In addition to the State and Federal law requirements, there are specific academic standards for health/safety education. The Oklahoma C³ Standards for Health and Safety (formerly Priority Academic Student Skills) represent standards that describe what students should know concerning health and safety. The standards are categorized under the following: Health and Safety Literacy, Responsible Health and Safety Behavior, and Health and Safety Advocacy.  Addressing bullying prevention in your school will help you meet the following standards:

Health/Safety Education Grades 1-4

Standard 4:

  • 5. Identify and define bullying behaviors.
  • 6. Practice skills to diffuse and avoid a “bully.”
  • 7. Understand how to report bullying behaviors.

Standard 5:

  • 9. Identify forms of harassing behaviors.
  • 10. Recognize the difference between teasing and bullying behaviors.

Health/Safety Education Grades 5-8

Standard 1:

  • 5. Identify and demonstrate violence prevention skills.

Standard 3:

  • 4. Identify ways to resolve problems and prevent violence.

Health/Safety Education Grades 9-12

Standard 6:

  • 5. Examine bullying prevention strategies and the effects of bystander influence on violent behavior situations.

Click here for all of the Oklahoma C³ Standards for Health and Safety Education.

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What is in an effective bullying prevention policy?

Do not pass a policy to meet the law, pass an effective policy to eliminate bullying. The purpose of a policy is to prohibit harassment, intimidation, bullying, and threatening behavior, provide options for the methods of control and discipline of the students, and shall define standards of conduct to which students are expected to conform. Effective policies prohibiting harassment, intimidation, and bullying should include:

  • A statement of purpose, which includes the scope of the policy and prohibited behavior;
  • Definitions clarifying prohibited behavior;
  • A means to report incidents, including a process to submit information anonymously;
  • The requirement that school personnel report, in a timely and responsive manner, incidents of bullying they witness or are aware of to a designated official;
  • A process of notification to local law enforcement, if necessary, and parents as provided by state and federal law;
  • A plan for notifying students, parents, and staff of policies related to bullying;
  • A tiered discipline system of the consequences of engaging in bullying behavior;
  • A procedure for maintaining records of all incidents and how the incident was resolved;
  • A plan for training and educating all school personnel; and
  • A provision for the district board of education to review local policies on a regular basis to ensure the goals of the state statute and policy are met.

Click here for a USDE review of laws and policies.

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What can I do if I witness a bullying incident?

If you witness a bullying incident, follow the steps below to appropriate intervene and address the incident:

  • Intervene immediately.
  • Identify that the incident was bullying.*
  • Request more information separately with the students involved. 
  • Tell the students you are aware of their behavior.
  • Make it a teachable experience. 
  • Document the incident.
  • Maintain records.
  • Inform the parents and appropriate staff for further investigation.

*To avoid escalating the tension, you may wait until later to sort out the facts.

Click here for a witness report form.

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How should we investigate bullying incidents?

The purpose of investigating reported incidents is to determine the behavior, the severity of the incident, and their potential to result in future violence. Please review the following definitions that are defined in the Oklahoma School Security Act to help recognize bullying behavior:

“Harassment, intimidation, and bullying means any gesture, written, or verbal expression, electronic communication, or physical act that a reasonable person should know will harm another student, damage another student’s property, place another student in reasonable fear of harm to the student’s person or damage to the student’s property, or insult or demean any student or group of students in such a way as to disrupt or interfere with the school’s educational mission or the education of any student.”

“Threatening behavior means any pattern of behavior or isolated action, whether or not it is directed at another person, that a reasonable person would believe indicates potential for future harm to students, school personnel, or school property.”

Using existing investigation procedures and roles may help keep the requirements of compliance manageable. It is recommended that the district use a single investigation form and have an investigation team to help with consistency of all incident investigation. In many cases involving bullying and harassment, parents have reported to the State Department of Education that they have tried to call attention to incidents many times without action taken by the district. Reports that are met with inaction will create the sense that the school is not serious about dealing with bullying and harassment, regardless of whether school staff considers that to be the case. Once a school has received notice of harassment, intimidation, bullying, or threatening behavior, it should begin an investigation as soon as possible to determine what occurred, the severity of the incident, and their potential to result in future violence.

Click here for a sample investigation form.

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How should we conduct interviews of the students involved in the incident?

All parties involved should be interviewed and written statements should be taken. These statements should be obtained separately and all possible steps should be taken to prevent retaliation. All interviews, regardless of whether they are with victim, offender, or witnesses, should follow local board adopted policy. The bullying prevention policy should be reviewed with all parties involved, as well as the investigation procedure. The investigator should be neutral of the incident. If the investigator is involved in the incident, a replacement investigator should conduct the investigation.

Parents should be notified as allowed by state and federal law. Parents are more likely to feel the school is addressing the situation if they are involved in the investigation process. It is recommended that the parents of the students involved be notified of the incident, the investigation procedures and interview. After the notification, it is also recommended that a follow-up letter is sent to the parent with the bullying prevention policy to provide additional documentation of the incident investigation to comply with state and federal laws.

Click here for sample interview statement form.

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What are appropriate consequences of engaging in bullying behavior?

A wide range of options are available for consequences of bullying behavior. In general, consequences should be scaled in relation to the severity of the incident. More severe consequences such as suspension or referral to law enforcement should be considered as the student’s misconduct becomes severe, outrageous, or repeated. Some of these options are presented below, rank ordered by severity.

  • Review of bullying prevention policy
  • Student contract 
  • Follow up/Monitoring
  • Meeting with parents
  • Meeting with principal
  • Counseling interventions
  • In-school assignments (research paper on the effects of harassment from the view of the victim, formal written apology to victim, presentation to lower grade-level students)
  • Creative ideas (anti-bullying posters, anti-bullying public service announcements)
  • Intervention programs 
  • School service work
  • Loss of privileges (extracurricular activities, open lunch, prom activities, field trips)
  • Loss of privileges on bus/loss of bus privileges
  • In school suspension
  • Suspension
  • Assignment to alternative education facility
  • Refer to local law enforcement

*Cyberbullying discipline could be to submit a report the “old-fashioned way” by writing it instead of using a computer. They will learn what it is like to not be able to use technology, which should promote a greater respect for those tools.

Click here for a sample student behavior contract.

Click here for a list of researched-based bullying prevention programs.

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How can we raise awareness on bullying prevention in our school?

One-time shots are insufficient for changing a climate of bullying or producing sustainable effects. It is suggested that a multi-tiered approach is an effective way to prevent bullying. Attention is focused on creating and sustaining primary (school-wide), secondary (classroom), and tertiary (individual) systems of support that improve lifestyle results for all children and youth by making targeted behaviors less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional.[v] The primary tier is the universal system of support geared towards all students in the school, the secondary tier is the selected interventions to support at risk students, and the tertiary tier is the indicated interventions for students already involved in bullying. Below is a list of universal approaches:

  • Social media campaigns
  • School pledges
  • Banner pledges
  • Anti-bullying week (State week is 1st week in October)
  • Assembly
  • Student presented/student developed presentations
  • Student Surveys
  • Prevention incorporated into curriculum
  • PSA assignments
  • Anti-bullying art contest
  • Community campaigns 
  • Poster contests
  • Morning announcements
  • Anonymous reporting box/random acts of kindness box
  • “Mix-it-up” lunch or class seating

Click here for an example of community campaigns.

Click here for CDC developed student surveys.

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What are ineffective ways to prevent bullying?

In recent years, increasing numbers of educators, health professionals, parents, and other adults who interact with students have come to understand the seriousness of bullying. Many proven and promising prevention and intervention strategies have been developed. Unfortunately, some misdirected intervention and prevention strategies also have emerged. Research has shown that the following are strategies that do not work or have unexpected negative consequences.

  • Zero tolerance or “three strikes and you are out” policies: While this may be effective in small cases, studies show that it is ineffective as a broad-based policy. With threats of severe punishment it may discourage students from reporting incidents and bullying can often be a early indicator of other behavior problems. Children who bully are often in need of positive role models that they may only encounter at school.
  • Conflict resolution and peer mediation: Bullying is not a conflict between two people of equal power with equal blame for the situation. Also, facing those who have bullied them may further upset students who have been bullied.
  • Group treatment for students who bully: Group members tend to reinforce bullying behavior in each other.
  • Simple, short-term solutions: Focusing on bullying in a piecemeal way (e.g., in-service training, school assembly, lessons taught by individual teachers) will do much less to prevent bullying than a school-wide initiative.[vi]

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How do we prevent bullying in our school?

  • Assess bullying in your school to determine where and when bullying occurs.
  • Name an incident coordinator and review your bullying prevention policy annually.
  • Determine where to increase supervision and work with all staff such as bus drivers, cafeteria staff, and playground monitors to watch for incidents both inside and outside of the classroom.
  • Work with the Safe School Committee on recommendations for the site principal. The law states the committee must be composed of at least 7 members, however the more members in attendance will help the school provide a united effort in bullying prevention.
  • Integrate bullying prevention into curriculum and school activities.
  • Encourage and create a plan of action to educate and raise school-wide awareness.
  • Involve parents and community members. Bullying is not just a school issue it is a community issue.

Click here for a staff bullying survey.

Click here for CDC developed student surveys.

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What bullying curriculum can I implement in my school?

Research studies have found that school-based, anti-bullying prevention programs reduced bullying and victimization by an average of 20%. Violence prevention programs and social-emotional learning curricula may also impact bullying.

Click here for a list of evidence-based bullying prevention programs examined and approved by federal agencies.

Click here for a list of evidence-based violence prevention programs examined and approved by federal agencies.

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How do I prevent bullying on the school bus?

The same strategies for preventing bullying at school can apply to preventing bullying on the school bus. There are other strategies to address and prevent bullying behaviors specifically on the bus.

  • Get to know the kids on the bus. Take time to greet them every day and learn their names. Do not play favorites.
  • Role model respect and good manners. Do not express anger at other motorists.
  • Establish an environment of respect. Model the schools policy on bullying prevention. Post anti-bullying signage.
  • Make bullying reports available on the bus.
  • Establish assigned seating. Place problematic students in the front of the bus.
  • Establish bus leaders of older students to help identify bullying behaviors.
  • Communicate with other staff to recognize common problematic students.
  • Attend bullying prevention training. All staff should be aware of how to recognize and prevent bullying incidents.
  • Reinforce positive behaviors on the bus. Establish a “bus of the month” or similar program. Certificates to students, congratulatory letters to students’ parents, school announcements, and coupons for free ice cream at the school cafeteria or items at local business are some examples of positive recognition efforts.[vii]

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What can communities do about school bullying?

Bullying does not begin and end at the school doors. Bullying is not a school problem, it is a community problem. Community members play a large role in effectively preventing school bullying by providing a united front to prohibit bullying. All community members play a vital part and can share their expertise, resources, and skills. Community members can contribute support to combat bullying by taking the following actions:

  • Report incidents to school staff if any bullying or harassment has occurred in or around school grounds or at school activities.
  • Participate in bullying prevention or Safe School Committees.
  • Volunteer to mentor bullies and targets of bullying.
  • Provide support for parents whose children are experiencing bullying problems.
  • Demonstrate to all students the concern and support of the community by supporting positive school projects, sports, events, and field trips.
  • Model good character and responsible citizenship.
  • Consider adapting the school rules against bullying and the protocols to apply to businesses, recreation agencies, and churches in the community.
  • Stay informed and aware of school bullying policies and state laws regarding bullying and harassment.
  • Partner with schools and organizations to encourage positive behavior, valuing differences, and promoting sensitivity to others.
  • Pledge to prevent bullying

Click here for a sample anti-bullying community pledge.

Click here for examples of what communities are doing.

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Are there any free resources available to prevent bullying?

Absolutely! Having money to address bullying prevention is great, but it is not required. There are many free resources, training, and programs available to help you tackle this problem without a budget.

Click here for a reproducible resource guide.

CyberSmart! Curriculum

Federal Trade Commission (Net Cetera cyberbullying/online safety brochures)

InformED by Open Colleges (Resources for teachers and counselors)

National Crime Prevention Council (bullying brochures)

National Crime Prevention Council (cyberbullying brochures)

Oklahoma City National Memorial (staff development and violence prevention programs)

Pacer’s Bullying Prevention (bookmarks and pledges)

The ABC’s of Bullying Online Course (staff development)

Teachers TV on Bullying (videos)

Teaching Tolerance (professional development, bullying DVD, and teaching kits)

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Where can I get more information?

For additional questions you may contact:

Joy Hermansen
Coordinator/Prevention Specialist
Oklahoma State Department of Education
2500 North Lincoln Boulevard, Suite 112
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105
Email: Joy.Hermansen@sde.ok.gov
Phone: 405-521-2106
Fax: 405-522-0496


[i] United States Government Bullying Prevention Web Site. What is Bullying? stopbullying.gov

[ii] Adapted from United States Government Bullying Prevention Web Site. How do I get help? stopbullying.gov

[iii] United States Government Bullying Prevention Web Site. When Bullying May be a Civil Rights Violation. stopbullying.gov

[iv] United States Department of Education Dear Colleague Letter. October 26, 2010. Harassment and Bullying. www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-201010.pdf

[v] Positive Behavior Interventions and Support. Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support. www.pbis.org

[vi] United States Government Bullying Prevention Web Site. Follow-up Intervention. stopbullying.gov

[vii] Pupil Transportation Safety Institute. www.ptsi.org/

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Last updated on January 7, 2014