Oklahoma is second in the nation in winter wheat production. Hard red winter wheat is grown in every county in the state on a total of 6 million acres. Wheat planting begins in late August and lasts through mid-October. Some acres are planted before and after those dates, but optimum time is usually mid-September. About 60 percent of all Oklahoma wheat is pastured beginning in early November extending through early to mid-March. Rapid growth starts in April, with heads shooting out in early May and turning a golden yellow in late May. Harvest begins first in southwest Oklahoma in late May or early June and ends in late June or early July in the northwest. Harvest dates are variable depending on weather conditions. Flour mills are located in Shawnee, Okeene, Blackwell, and Enid.
Cotton is grown primarily in southwestern Oklahoma, although there is significant acreage in north central Oklahoma. Oklahoma also has 20 active gins.
Corn is grown across much of Oklahoma, but is primarily in the northwest and eastern parts of the state. Planting begins in late March through early June. Corn grows rapidly, usually shooting out a tassel and ear of corn by July 4th, depending upon location.
Grape-growing is one of Oklahoma’s fastest growing agricultural commodities. Vineyards can be found in every region of the state. Additionally, Oklahoma has 18 wineries.
Hay consists of alfalfa, wild and prairie hay, sorghum/sudan crosses, sudan, bermuda, lespedeza, soybean hay, peanut hay, and small grain hay. Hay is grown in every county of the state. The first cutting of hay is in late April, and the last cutting is in October.
Peanuts are produced mostly in the southwestern part of the state. Oklahoma is the second largest producer of Spanish peanuts in the nation. Peanut, planted in mid to late April, mature underground, so that only the vines are visible.
Pecan orchards are popular throughout central and eastern Oklahoma, with the heaviest concentration in the Tulsa and Ada areas. The large trees form a green nut in the summer. Harvest begins around Thanksgiving.
Soybeans are planted in the spring through early July, depending on location. The crop will grow to a height of two to four feet depending on variety. Soybean plants bloom with a white or blue flower in mid-summer, form fuzzy green pods in August, mature in September, and are harvested in October.
Grain Sorghum is planted from late April to early June depending on location and grows about four feet tall with a bushy, bright red head of grain. Some varieties are yellow or cream-colored. Harvest normally occurs in November but could start as early as September.
Sunflowers are planted in May and harvested in October. The type grown in Oklahoma are used for birdseed and processed for oil. The crop shoots out a beautiful large head in late summer that actually turns toward the sun during the day. It matures in early fall before being harvested in October.
Peaches are primarily found in Wagoner county, near Porter, and in Garvin and Pontotoc counties near Stratford.
Other crops found in Oklahoma include strawberries, okra, blackberries, black-eyed peas, asparagus, kiwi, pumpkin and cannas.