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FOR RELEASE: May 2, 2000
Hepatitis C: A Growing Concern Among Health Officials
Note to Editors: May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month.
An estimated 4 million Americans have been infected with hepatitis C, five times the number of those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The Oklahoma State Department of Health estimates more than 50,000 Oklahomans have been infected with hepatitis C.
"Many Oklahomans are unaware of their infection because they do not feel ill," said State Health Commissioner J.R. Nida, M.D. "This is a major public health concern, if we are to detect the infection and limit hepatitis C transmission."
The word "hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver. Although there are many causes of inflammation, viral infection is a common cause. Viral infections include hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
Hepatitis A is transmitted by close personal contact with a person with the disease or ingestion of food contaminated by a person infected with hepatitis A. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are infections transmitted primarily through blood. The majority of people infected with hepatitis A and B recover from illness and are considered immune.
In contrast, up to 85 percent of those infected with hepatitis C cannot clear the infection and the virus continues to multiply within their body. These people are referred to as "chronically infected" with hepatitis C and are potentially contagious to others. About half of chronically infected persons will eventually develop liver disease, such as cirrhosis or cancer of the liver.
Nida said the primary risk factors for hepatitis C include injecting-drug use and exposure to blood in the health-care setting. Sexual transmission may occur but the risk appears to be low. Blood transfusion-associated cases that occurred prior to blood donor screening are now very rare.
"Symptoms of all viral hepatitis are similar and include yellowing of the skin, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and bouts of nausea and vomiting. When initially infected with hepatitis C, only one of ten people will have symptoms. It can be years, even decades, before a person chronically infected with hepatitis C begins to experience symptoms serious enough to prompt seeking medical care," Nida said.
Testing for hepatitis C is available through one's physician. A screening test may also be obtained at an Oklahoma Blood Institute site for $10.00. Persons for whom testing is recommended include those who received a blood transfusion or organ transplant prior to July 1992, those who received clotting factor concentrates prior to 1987, chronic hemodialysis patients, persons who ever injected illegal drugs, even if a few times many years ago, health care and public safety workers after exposure to HCV-positive blood and children born to hepatitis C-positive women.
Several drugs are licensed for the treatment of hepatitis C and are effective for many, but not all, of persons infected with hepatitis C. Support groups are available in Oklahoma City and Tulsa. Information regarding scheduled meetings can be obtained at www.searchok.com/~hepcsupportokc. For more information on HCV, contact the county health department in your area or visit the OSDH Web site at www.health.state.ok.us.
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